|Author(s)||G. Nikolaou and J.A. Spinthourakis|
|Editor||A. Ross, The Experience of Citizenship|
The changing geopolitical realities of Europe today from both the perspective of the 'old' as well as the 'new' Europe represent challenges to education generally and to citizenship education specifically. These challenges are faced by educational systems intent on moving away from a rigid ethnocentric to a more flexible multicultural perspective; one which attempts to be inclusive rather than exclusive. Both the ethnic profile and the educational profile of newcomers varies for recent immigrants throughout Europe. Differences exist that are country specific and often linked to government policy as well as the status of the newcomers. What are rapidly changing are locality and school demographics. It may be argued that, in light of these changes and the need to integrate and initiate all students into their society, a significant issue confronting education today is the teaching of citizenship education.