London Metropolitan University Research Institutes

Civic Education, social and personal development and citizenship education: changes in Portugal through the 20th Century

Author(s) Maria Luísa A. V. de Freitas  
Publisher CiCe Publications  
Year 1999  
Editor Alistair Ross, Young Citizens in Europe  
Language English  
Age group -  
This paper surveys and analyses changes in civic and social education: civic education in the First Republic (1910 - 1926); the Dictatorship period and the omnipresence of moral and civic education; the beginning of democracy and the suspicion of moral and civic education; the curriculum reform (1989) and the discussion about "personal and social education" and "civic education". The paper explores the choice between integrated studies and specific courses. It concludes with an analysis of the rise of citizenship education at the end of the 1990s.

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