|Author(s)||Trigo-Santos et al:|
|Editor||Europe of Many Cultures, Alastair Ross Ed.|
Between the 1986 Portuguese Education System Law that formally introduced a personal and social dimension in students' education and Law 6/2001 which restructured the compulsory school curriculum, several attempts were undertaken for the practical and formal development of this dimension in schools (Figueiredo & Silva, 2000). The 2001 Law reinforced the need and importance of citizenship education across curricular subjects as a necessary means of quality education and, amongst other measures and new areas of study, introduced civics education into the formal curriculum for Years 1-9. However, it is a non-disciplinary subject: meaning that there is (no?) compulsory attendance and qualitative final evaluation (Abrantes, 2002). Its nature is controversial as, for the first time, there is a field in teachers' work without a formal national curriculum and no teaching specialisation, and whose responsibility was allocated to the team of teachers for each class. It is the class teacher who, after this new legislation, also takes on the civics teaching. Although there is no formal programme, some publishers produced manuals and resources that are being used in different ways depending on the contexts.