|Editor||A. Ross, The Experience of Citizenship|
Addiction is understood as individual's chronical avoidance of his/her internal conflicts and loosening the limits of his/her real life, which is denoted with an intensive and permanent wish (at first) and then with a permanent need for either a drug ( for example heroin, LDS, cigarettes, alcohol etc.) or for a specific activity (for example gambling, work/study, food, sex, danger,etc.), in order to avoid the existing unwanted condition(state) of his/her consciousness and enable an escape from it.Regardless of the kind, cause and forms, the addiction can be either physical and/or mental.It is determined by compulsion, loss of control and individual's persistence in such behaviour despite the perception of its bad effects in addictive behaviour. Researchers (such as Gross, Peel, Antelmann, Jacobs, Taylor Oxford,etc.) classify addictions into addiction to drugs (legal and illegal) and addiction to activity.A similar attitude to the means of addiction, concentration(focus)on the object(s) of addiction and experience and behaviour of an addict are typical of both kinds of addiction.Even though (it can be found out that) the intensity and speed of destructive consequences of addiction to activity are slower and less intensive , similar destrucitve consequences such as individual's limited aim to satisfy his/her needs, unsociableness, alienation from people important for an individual, financial, material and social self-destruction in the last stadium of addiction , physical collapse of an individual etc. can be noticed.It is not important for an addict how often and with which means s/he experiences the change of his consciousness but the fact that a certain object, person or relation becomes a defence mechanism for his basic(primary) anxiety.