|Editor||P. Cunningham & N. Fretwell, Lifelong Learning and Active Citizenship|
This paper reports on the Portuguese sample of a comparative study of competences concerning the expectations of students and perceptions of teachers, in secondary schools in Cyprus, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Romania. In Berlin and Lüneburg in Germany we used the translated Italian questionnaires for a sample of 25 secondary teachers and 200 students. Although the German situation in the secondary-school system different from the Italian in many ways the questions about competence and democratic relationships between students and teachers were of interest for our sample. The German discourse about competences in secondary-school is much about individual skills that are based on the so called Gestaltungsfähigkeit (ability to create) which has a strong implication on Education for Sustainable Development. In this discourse collective approaches like democratic structures and equal rights in the classroom are not strongly mentioned. Moreover students with a migration background tent to be excluded and forgotten in the German school system with a strong habitus on German language. Teachers mention that democratic principles are taught in the curriculum and the extra teaching programs but difficult to live in a hierarchic and administrative school system. Pupils complain about different attention to their learning skills and motivation.