|Editor||A. Ross. Citizenship Education: Europe and the World|
Education for (European Democratic) Citizenship (EC) has been strongly advocated by the European Commission with programmes to spread democratic principles and promote social inclusion among young people. The Commission has ambitious educational goals to develop citizenship and an European identity in children and adolescents, and to strengthen them in adults. The models proposed assume a large range of general and specific skills and attitudes. This paper reviews these patterns and critically discusses the role of pro-social competences in active citizenship, and presents a new model of the competences involved in citizenship focused on active citizenship.It also presents some empirical tools for achieving these competences, part of a surveyof children, adolescents and adults in twelve European countries.